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The present invention can be included in the technical field of the production of microalgae. The invention also has a place in the field of preparation and recovery of impaired natural environments. The object of the invention is a system open for cultivation of microalgae that allows recovery of damaged natural environments reactor.
Microalgae are microorganisms "fixing carbon dioxide", since because its power is generally photosynthetic, convert sunlight into chemical energy through photosynthesis, absorbing carbon as carbon dioxide.
These organisms are a source of great economic importance bioproducts. Some species store high concentrations of lipids. Also they contain gamma-linolenic, stimulating acid prostaglandins regulatory activity of body cells. Some species contain lutein, which can reduce the risk of various cancers, heart disease and eye diseases. Other compounds of microalgae also have anticarcinogenic action, antimutagenic, stimulating the immune system, detoxifying and reducing cholesterol and hypertension.
Certain species have high plasma beta-carotene, antioxidant and efficient radical scavenger. Moreover, microalgae represent an important reservoir of omega-3, which derivatives are effective in the prevention and treatment of, among other, heart disease, platelet aggregation, an abnormal cholesterol levels, and some cancers being also highly promising for the treatment of certain forms of mental illness.
Therefore, the use of microalgae comprises many different applications , as the manufacture of medicines, food additives or food for human consumption. In addition to its feed use, microalgae are used in aquaculture in the growth of bivalves 9 , for larval stages of some species of crustaceans and fish early stages of its high protein content.
In addition, in recent years it has us forth its potential as an energy source, given its high content of high-energy substances. For example, the accumulated microalgae, after a transesterification process, oil could be used for the production of biodiesel 1 , and waste used by its heating, and even microalgae can be used directly as fuel in appropriate systems or as a source of raw materials in thermal processes.
Between the open systems industrial production of biomass, those of the carousel type, closed circuit consisting of shallow channels cm. These systems must be sown at a rate and a concentration suitable algae growth in the schedule.
There are numerous performances of various government agencies on dry ravines and riverbeds rivers with detours of them by road infrastructures, access to different urban areas or other concepts. Maintaining these environments is not always adequate and are often neglected, dirty and even obstructed, making them nonfunctional and dangerous. The use or enabling these natural places for use as reactors for growing algae provides the advantage of keeping them in an operating condition as a clean channel, unimpeded and facilitates the removal of accumulations of water floods its origin and now their fate.
The open system for growing microalgae object of the present invention comprises reactor: As anticipated above, the reactor is opened in a conditioned natural space adequately to serve microalgae culture bed. Examples of suitable natural open spaces used as reactor, ravines and riverbeds are mentioned and generally environmentally degraded natural areas. The conditioning of natural areas comprises compaction operations, cleaning and waterproofing, for example, by depositing means comprising sealing plastic or a layer of crushed rock on a bed of clay.
Means sown seed culture provide the open reactor, he said seed culture is developed while in the open reactor, resulting in a final culture of microalgae. Preferably, they consider two options for obtaining seed culture: These options are not mutually exclusive, with the possibility, depending on the needs of each particular case, to use more than one of them to the extent that is most appropriate. Regarding media seeded reactors using open seed has the advantage of involving lower operating costs and construction.
When contamination of the culture is not a critical design parameter, such reactors are preferable open sown. Using a part of the final culture as seed culture is also an option when contamination is not a critical parameter.
However, closed reactors have the advantage of sowing significantly reduce crop contamination by unwanted species of microalgae or predators, pollution can be expected to occur when crops are exposed to the atmosphere. The probability of the presence of contamination is proportional to the exposure time outdoor cultivation. If contamination occurs in the middle or at the end of the bed, it might be acceptable and just would affect the process.
However, if a recirculation rate is used as the seed would almost total likelihood that at some point the culture is contaminated, and this contamination was inoculated at the bedside; After several stages, you could lose the entire crop if contamination outside a predator ciliated protozoan type. The water delivery means necessary consist preferably of wells located near the open reactor. For locations near the coast, there is the additional advantage that the water and has an adequate salt content.
Means nutrient provide the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, magnesium, potassium and calcium necessary nutrients for the development of microalgae, both macro- and micronutrients iron, manganese, copper, zinc, sodium, molybdenum, chlorine and cobalt. Input bicarbonates, and use of spargers for sparging CO 2: For the particular case of carbon input, various possibilities are considered.
Because each of these options has drawbacks and advantages, it is also possible to employ a combination of both. Specifically, bubbling C0 2 it is limited by low water solubility of C0 2, which facilitates their loss to the atmosphere. Carbon input by sodium bicarbonate presents no such drawback and facilitates carbon concentration along the open reactor, but implies the need to provide means for controlling the pH, since the presence of bicarbonates causes pH increase which causes precipitation of such bicarbonates, not producing the expected contribution of carbon.
Thus, the carbon input is given through HCO3 "obtained by absorption of C0 2 content in a gas stream of chimney a next installation industry or combustion of the same biomass obtained in the process, by countercurrent treatment with a solution of carbonates. In this sense the absorption process may be carried out in facilities attached to the radio industry flue gases, or, if placed near the dry bed, the fixing unit of carbon dioxide could be included in the complex facilities and assume the carbon source for both algae in the bed as seed in photobioreactors.
The energy required for the operation of open reactor of the invention is preferably obtained directly from the combustion of part of the microalgae obtained in the final culture. Even more preferably, the C0 2 obtained in this combustion can be used as carbon source for the cultivation itself, as explained above.
The end of travel in the open reactor, the stream obtained can be used directly as feed for aquaculture or undergo a process of separation of the biomass, such as for instance sedimentation, tangential filtration, flocculation, centrifugation, etc. In any case, after separation or use of biomass generated, a stream of water, which after a conditioning process would be suitable for recycle to the process as mentioned above is obtained.
Alternatively, and as it has also been mentioned above, prior to the collection and separation of cultivated microalgae can be partially recirculated to form the stream appropriately diluted the seed culture. In short, the present invention proposes the use of a ravine or river bed for microalgae. The main idea is enabling a dry bed, or a place adapted as such as means of circulating a stream of water, suitably conditioned as a culture medium for growth of a particular species of microalgae.
Seeding bed reactor is performed with cultures from bioreactors or with culture from recirculation of current obtained in the channel.
Along the same it is carried out microalgae growth, the dosage of nutrients and carbon sources necessary to collect it at the end of travel. A preferred embodiment of the invention with the aid of figure 1 attached is described: The open system for obtaining microalgae of the invention comprises an open reactor consisting reactor 1 in the bed of a dry river. The river is pre-compacted, cleaned and waterproofed. The open reactor 1 thus obtained is divided into pools 2 consecutive by dams 3.
In order to provide adequate solar lighting crop, the invention includes stirring means 4 cultivation ponds 2. For example, a depth of between 15 and 25 cm is proposed. There is an initial zone 9 of the system in which is located a plurality of closed fotobiorrreactores seeding 5 , which allow obtaining a seed culture with a given concentration of microalgae. The system of the invention incorporates wells.
Periodically said photobioreactors 5 are partially emptied in order to feed the crop. After this partial emptying, photobioreactors 5 are filled again with water 10 and sufficient nutrients 7. The addition of nutrients. The nutrient stream 7 must contain the necessary amounts of both macro- and micronutrients. For example, Table 1 below shows a possible nutrient composition 7 , which is shown for each compound of the column on the left in the right column its average concentration in grams per liter: Compound C NC gil medium.
The optimum residence time of the crop is set considering that one of the main problems of open systems is the contamination, and the probability that it will occur as well as its severity decrease with decreasing it. Taking this into account, along with the fact that optimal conditions of a photobioreactor 5 cultures can double the amount of biomass in a day, it has been considered an approximate value of 3 days in the case of the channel, since in reactors with the latter configuration, the growth rates of microalgae are often lower.
The residence time should be adjusted depending on, among other factors, weather conditions and the type of microalgae considered. In this case, since all that is recirculated is a stream 10 , capable of being sterilized, the risk of contamination is low. Flow rates at the appropriate open reactor are between 0. Under certain circumstances, such as the case of the proposed configuration, the flow rate may be lower 0. Alternatively, rafts 2 may be agitated by an external stirrer 4.
The concentration of biomass required to be used as seed culture is one of the parameters to be optimized. The residence time required of crop planted in the photobioreactor 5 depends on the temperature, solar radiation, the type of selected algae, etc; however, a reference value may be close to 24 hours approximately 8 hours of sunshine per day , the time needed to obtain a seed culture concentrated enough.
While, from the standpoint of reagent dosage and control in the reactors, the most suitable configuration is available in a given area, it is possible that such photobioreactor reactors 5 can be placed along the bed and integrated In the landscape.
To achieve a carbon contribution, the invention contemplates the presence of carbon input means 1: For providing bicarbonates, the invention incorporates means control pH which provide a solution of HCI properly distributed throughout the culture followed by an eventual separation of precipitates carbonates or alkaline earth metal hydroxides, and grinding the pH. Country of ref document: Kind code of ref document: The invention can be used to obtain a final culture of microalgae from a seed culture, using the bed of a dry river.
The seeding means 5 may be closed photobioreactors 5 or part of the recycled final culture. The water supply means 10 are preferably wells 6 located in proximity to the system. The system is supplied with the energy resulting from the combustion of part of the final culture obtained. Then a number of advantageous aspects of the present invention are listed: Figure 1 shows a system diagram of the invention.
The system of the invention incorporates wells 6 as water supply means 10 and also includes means not shown nutrient supply 7. The addition of nutrients 7 necessary for the growth of microalgae can be carried out in the initial zone 9 or progressively along the bed.
What is claimed 1. Culture of fine algae in high concentration by utilization of deep layer water and device therefor.
Process of outdoor thin-layer cultivation of microalgae and blue-green algae and bioreactor for performing the process.
Continuous-batch hybrid process for production of oil and other useful products from photosynthetic microbes. Integrated process of algae cultivation and production of diesel fuel from biorenewable feedstocks.
Reduction of water and energy requirement of algae cultivation using an algae biofilm photobioreactor. Dual purpose microalgae—bacteria-based systems that treat wastewater and produce biodiesel and chemical products within a Biorefinery.
Integration of microalgae cultivation with industrial waste remediation for biofuel and bioenergy production: Nitrogen and phosphorus removal from urban wastewater by the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. Hectare-scale demonstration of high rate algal ponds for enhanced wastewater treatment and biofuel production.