Glossary of Technical Terms

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Using three DES encryptions on a single data block, with mcafee support community converting ip address in binary to std format least two different keys, to get higher security than is available from a single DES pass. ACL Access control list. An access control list contains the list of permissions for an object, including users, system processes, or operations that are allowed access to that object.

In a typical ACL, each entry includes a subject and any allowed operations. ACLs can also apply to network resources such as port numbers or IP addresses. ActiveX Microsoft's name for certain object-oriented programming technologies and tools. ActiveX is often downloaded and executed on a local system when browsing the Internet, and may require specific port restrictions. ADSL Asymmetrical digital subscriber line. A technology allowing high-speed data transfer over existing telephone lines. Supports data rates between 1.

AES Advanced encryption standard. AES ciphers use a bit block and, or bit keys. The larger block size helps resist birthday attacks while the large key size prevents brute force attacks.

The transport layer information includes elements such as the protocol, ports, and connection or session timeouts. Agents types can be proxy, filter, or server. An upper-level header located between the IP header and the payload mcafee support community converting ip address in binary to std format an IP packet.

Typically, an AH includes an integrity check value of the transfer-independent contents of the IP packet. It does not provide data confidentiality. API Application program interface. A stable, published software interface to an operating system or specific software program by which a programmer writing a custom application can make requests of the operating system or specific mcafee support community converting ip address in binary to std format program.

An API provides an easy and standardized connection to a particular software component. ARP Address resolution protocol. A gratuitous ARP is a system broadcasting its own information, often after an address change, so other devices can update their ARP caches. Authentication confirms that data is sent to the intended recipient and assures the recipient that the data originated from the expected sender and has not been altered en route.

BATV Bounce address tag validation. A draft Internet standard that attempts to solve the issue of bouncing spoofed mail. For the latest BATV draft, visit http: A standard program that implements the domain name service DNS.

ISPs that fail to discipline spammers may find all email from their legitimate customers blocked by large numbers of recipients. This tactic forces the ISP to take action against spammers using their systems because legitimate users do not want to be inconvenienced by having their email blocked. The opposite of a whitelist. A protocol that allows a network user to automatically receive an IP address and have an operating system boot without user interaction.

Bots short for robots are programs that are covertly installed on a targeted system allowing an unauthorized user to remotely control the compromised computer for a variety of malicious purposes. CA certificate A self-signed certificate that identifies a certification authority CA. It is called a CA certificate because it is the certificate for the root CA. A cache is used to speed up data transfer, instruction execution, and data retrieval and updating.

Callback provides good security and is cost-effective for users who remotely access networks from the same location each time, but not for users who use different locations each time. A digitally signed statement that contains information about an entity and the entity's public key, and binds these two pieces of information together.

As part of the X. CGI Common gateway interface. Any server-side code that accepts data from forms via HTTP. The forms are generally on web pages and submitted by end users. You can use a configuration backup file to quickly restore a system to a previous operational state.

Also referred to as the Trusted Source Web Database. CRL Certificate revocation list. A time-stamped list, signed by a certification authority, that identifies revoked certificates and is freely available in a public repository. CSR Certificate signing request. Also called a certificate request. This feature can also slow down access to specified file types. DHCP Dynamic host configuration protocol. A communication protocol that simplifies distributing IP addresses within a network.

The dynamic protocol allows administrators to centrally assign and manage IP addresses instead of having to do those tasks locally. The signature is difficult to forge or repudiate. A method that allows companies to add digital signatures to messages for verification of the domain's mcafee support community converting ip address in binary to std format key.

A list of attributes that defines the description of the certificate. DNS Domain name system. A set of connected name servers and resolvers allows users to use a host name rather than a bit Internet address.

For instance, in the IP address jones bizco. DoS Denial of service. An event in which a network experiences a loss of a service, such as email or a web server, that is mcafee support community converting ip address in binary to std format to be available. This event is generally caused by a malicious attack, but may also happen accidentally. To send non-text binary information, the data must first be encoded into ASCII format on the sender's side, and decoded using the same procedure on the receiver's side.

Common encoding methods include: Encryption reduces the risk of unauthorized access, but does not create a totally safe networking environment on its own. A definition of protocol extensions to the SMTP standard. The extension format was defined in RFC in Exploits are best identified through signature-based searches, which are computationally expensive to perform.

Therefore, no internal naming information can be obtained by anyone on the outside. FQDN Fully qualified domain name. The complete name of a specific computer on the Internet, an intranet, or a network. The FQDN consists of the computer's host name and domain name. FTP File transfer protocol. A protocol used on the Internet for transferring files. FTP site An Internet site that hosts directories and files that you can browse and copy to your system using the file transfer protocol FTP.

GINA Graphical identification and authentication. This is a configuration that aims to reduce or eliminate the mcafee support community converting ip address in binary to std format downtime and improve the fault tolerance of a resource by introducing a level of redundancy.

The algorithm used to create the hash should make it infeasible to construct a message so that its hash comes to a specific value. Hashes can be attached to a message to demonstrate that it has not been modified. If a message is modified, its new hash will no longer match the original hash value. The email header contains meta-data and routing information such as the identity and IP addresses of the sender and recipient, all email gateways between the sender and the recipient, and the email's priority and subject line.

Some spammers deliberately manipulate the header information in an attempt to fool or spoof spam filters as to the actual source of the email message.

The system uses this value to choose the most efficient route. This is also known as the path length. Class D and Class E addresses, where the first octet is between and inclusivecannot be used for host addresses. A simple programming language used to create web documents.

HyperText uses special links that you can click to jump from one related topic to another. A web server capable of sending hypertext documents. An agreed-upon format protocol that requests and transfers HTML documents on the web in mcafee support community converting ip address in binary to std format secured manner. A lightweight HTTP-based protocol designed to offload specific content to dedicated servers.

Often, identity thieves will open credit accounts in the victim's name. Identity theft is a danger of falling victim to a phishing attempt. The organization that developed the IPSec standard that protects data on unprotected or untrusted networks such as mcafee support community converting ip address in binary to std format Internet.

An Internet file and application server that is included with most Microsoft Windows operating systems. IKE Internet key exchange. IKE creates a private, authenticated key management channel. The channel is used for the peers to agree on the encryption, authentication, and compression algorithms to be used. The traffic to which the policies are applied is also agreed upon. IMAP Internet message access protocol.

The method used to access email remotely, usually through the use of webmail or another protocol that does not download the messages to the client.

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SOCKS5 additionally provides authentication so only authorized users may access a server. Blue Coat Systems bought out Permeo Technologies. The SOCKS5 protocol was originally a security protocol that made firewalls and other security products easier to administer.

SOCKS is a de facto standard for circuit-level gateways. Another use of SOCKS is as a circumvention tool, allowing traffic to bypass Internet filtering to access content otherwise blocked, e. Hacked computers may be configured as SOCKS proxy software obscuring control of a botnet or to optimise credit card fraud. SOCKS uses a handshake protocol to inform the proxy software about the connection that the client is trying to make, and then acts as transparently as possible, whereas a regular proxy may interpret and rewrite headers say, to employ another underlying protocol, such as FTP ; however, an HTTP proxy simply forwards an HTTP request to the desired HTTP server.

Bill wishes to communicate with Jane over the internet, but a firewall between them exists on his network, where Bill is not authorized to communicate with Jane directly. Bill wishes to download a web page from Jane, who runs a web server.

Bill cannot directly connect to Jane's server, as a firewall has been put in place on his network. His web browser communicates with the proxy in exactly the same way that it would directly with Jane's server if that was possible; that is, it sends a standard HTTP request header. The command field may be 0x01 for "connect" or 0x02 for "bind"; the "bind" command allows incoming connections for protocols such as active FTP. This corresponds to IP address 0. This is used for both "connect" and "bind" requests.

If it represents address 0. The server should resolve the domain name and make connection to the destination host if it can. The initial handshake consists of the following:. The subsequent authentication is method-dependent. Username and password authentication method 0x02 is described in RFC There are programs that allow users to circumvent such limitations:.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the internet protocol. For other uses, see Socks disambiguation.

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