how to convert Byte[] array to String in Java

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In this chapter, we will understand what binaries are, how they associate with strings, and what a single-quoted value, 'like this'means in Elixir.

A string is a UTF-8 encoded binary. In order to understand exactly what we mean by that, we need to understand the difference between bytes and code points. The Unicode standard assigns code points to many of the characters we know. When representing code points in bytes, we need to encode them somehow. Elixir chose the UTF-8 encoding as its main and default encoding. When we say a string is a UTF-8 encoded binary, we mean a string is a how to convert a binary representation of a string into bytes of bytes organized in a way to represent certain code points, as specified by the UTF-8 encoding.

You will see that Elixir has excellent support for working with strings. It also supports many of the Unicode operations. However, strings are just part of the story. A binary is just a sequence of bytes. Of course, those bytes can be organized in any way, even in a sequence that does not make them a valid how to convert a binary representation of a string into bytes.

Each number given to a binary is meant to represent a byte and therefore must go up to Binaries allow modifiers to be given to store numbers bigger than or to convert a code point to its utf8 representation:.

The value is no longer a binary, but a bitstring — just a bunch of bits! So a binary is a bitstring where the number of bits is divisible by 8! Note each entry in the binary is expected to match exactly 8 bits. However, we can match on the rest of the binary modifier:. This finishes our tour of bitstrings, binaries and strings. A string is a UTF-8 encoded binary, and a binary is a bitstring where how to convert a binary representation of a string into bytes number of bits is divisible by 8.

You can see that, instead of containing bytes, a char list contains the code points of the characters between single-quotes note that iex will only output code points if any of the chars is outside the ASCII range.

So while double-quotes represent a string i. In practice, char lists are used mostly when interfacing with Erlang, in particular old libraries that do not accept binaries as arguments. Note that those functions are polymorphic. They not only convert char lists to strings, but also integers to strings, atoms to strings, and so on. With binaries, strings, and char lists out of the way, it is time to talk about key-value data structures. Table Of Contents 6 Binaries, strings and char lists 6.

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The binascii module contains a number of methods to convert between binary and various ASCII-encoded binary representations. Normally, you will not use these functions directly but use wrapper modules like uu , base64 , or binhex instead. The binascii module contains low-level functions written in C for greater speed that are used by the higher-level modules. The binascii module defines the following functions:.

Convert a single line of uuencoded data back to binary and return the binary data. Lines normally contain 45 binary bytes, except for the last line. Line data may be followed by whitespace. Convert binary data to a line of ASCII characters, the return value is the converted line, including a newline char. The length of data should be at most Convert a block of base64 data back to binary and return the binary data. More than one line may be passed at a time.

The return value is the converted line, including a newline char. The newline is added because the original use case for this function was to feed it a series of 57 byte input lines to get output lines that conform to the MIME-base64 standard.

Otherwise the output conforms to RFC Convert a block of quoted-printable data back to binary and return the binary data. If the optional argument header is present and true, underscores will be decoded as spaces.

The return value is the converted line s. If the optional argument quotetabs is present and true, all tabs and spaces will be encoded. If the optional argument istext is present and true, newlines are not encoded but trailing whitespace will be encoded. If the optional argument header is present and true, spaces will be encoded as underscores per RFC If the optional argument header is present and false, newline characters will be encoded as well; otherwise linefeed conversion might corrupt the binary data stream.

The string should contain a complete number of binary bytes, or in case of the last portion of the binhex4 data have the remaining bits zero. Perform RLE-decompression on the data, as per the binhex4 standard.

The algorithm uses 0x90 after a byte as a repeat indicator, followed by a count. A count of 0 specifies a byte value of 0x The routine returns the decompressed data, unless data input data ends in an orphaned repeat indicator, in which case the Incomplete exception is raised. The argument should already be RLE-coded, and have a length divisible by 3 except possibly the last fragment.

Compute a bit CRC value of data , starting with an initial crc and returning the result. This CRC is used in the binhex4 format. Compute CRC, the bit checksum of data, starting with an initial crc.

This is consistent with the ZIP file checksum. Since the algorithm is designed for use as a checksum algorithm, it is not suitable for use as a general hash algorithm. If you are only using the checksum in packed binary format this is not necessary as the return value is the correct 32bit binary representation regardless of sign.

Changed in version 2. In the past the value would be signed on some platforms and unsigned on others. Changed in version 3. Return the hexadecimal representation of the binary data.

Every byte of data is converted into the corresponding 2-digit hex representation. The resulting string is therefore twice as long as the length of data. Return the binary data represented by the hexadecimal string hexstr. Exception raised on incomplete data. These are usually not programming errors, but may be handled by reading a little more data and trying again. The binascii module defines the following functions: Module binhex Support for the binhex format used on the Macintosh.

Module uu Support for UU encoding used on Unix. The Python Software Foundation is a non-profit corporation. Last updated on Feb 03, Created using Sphinx 1.