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During a project build, as source files are compiled they are also analyzed in tandem by the static analyzer. It works by overriding the CC and CXX environment variables to hopefully change your build to use a "fake" compiler instead of the one that would normally build your project.
This fake compiler executes either clang or gcc depending on the platform to compile your code and then executes the static analyzer to analyze your code. This "poor man's interposition" works amazingly well in many cases and falls down in others. Please consult the information on this page on making the best use of scan-build , which includes getting it to work when the aforementioned hack fails to work.
The scan-build command can be used to analyze an entire project by essentially interposing on a project's build process. This means that any files that are not compiled will also not be analyzed. Basic usage of scan-build is designed to be simple: In the first case scan-build analyzes the code of a project built with make and in the second case scan-build analyzes a project built using xcodebuild. Here is the general format for invoking scan-build:. For example, one can pass -j4 to make get a parallel build over 4 cores:.
In almost all cases, scan-build makes no effort to interpret the options after the build command; it simply passes them through. In general, scan-build should support parallel builds, but not distributed builds.
To invoke scan-build from an arbitrary location, add the path to the folder containing scan-build. As mentioned above, extra options can be passed to scan-build. These options prefix the build command. The output of scan-build is a set of HTML files, each one which represents a separate bug report.
You can then just open index. Where the HTML files are generated is specified with a -o option to scan-build. If you want to view the reports immediately after the build completes, pass -V to scan-build. Most projects can be built in a "debug" mode that enables assertions.
Assertions are picked up by the static analyzer to prune infeasible paths, which in some cases can greatly reduce the number of false positives bogus error reports emitted by the tool. Another option is to use --force-analyze-debug-code flag of scan-build tool which would enable assertions automatically. Redirecting the output of scan-build to a text file make sure to redirect standard error is useful for filing bug reports against scan-build or the analyzer, as we can see the exact options and files passed to the analyzer.
For more comprehensible logs, don't perform a parallel build. If an analyzed project uses an autoconf generated configure script, you will probably need to run configure script through scan-build in order to analyze the project.
The reason configure also needs to be run through scan-build is because scan-build scans your source files by interposing on the compiler. This interposition is currently done by scan-build temporarily setting the environment variable CC to ccc-analyzer. The program ccc-analyzer acts like a fake compiler, forwarding its command line arguments over to the compiler to perform regular compilation and clang to perform static analysis. Running configure typically generates makefiles that have hardwired paths to the compiler, and by running configure through scan-build that path is set to ccc-analyzer.
Conceptually Xcode projects for iPhone applications are nearly the same as their cousins for desktop applications. The absolute easiest way to analyze iPhone projects is to use the Analyze feature in Xcode which is based on the Clang Static Analyzer.
There a user can analyze their project right from a menu without most of the setup described later. Instructions are available on this website on how to use open source builds of the analyzer as a replacement for the one bundled with Xcode. If you wish to use scan-build with your iPhone project, keep the following things in mind:.
Note that you can most of this without actually modifying your project. For example, if your application targets iPhoneOS 2. Recall that scan-build analyzes your project by using a compiler to compile the project and clang to analyze your project. The script uses simple heuristics to determine which compiler should be used it defaults to clang on Darwin and gcc on other platforms. When analyzing iPhone projects, scan-build may pick the wrong compiler than the one Xcode would use to build your project.
For example, this could be because multiple versions of a compiler may be installed on your system, especially if you are developing for the iPhone.
Otherwise, you may see strange build errors that only happen when you run scan-build. Note that although you are chiefly interested in analyzing your project, keep in mind that running the analyzer is intimately tied to the build, and not being able to compile your code means it won't get fully analyzed if at all. If you aren't certain which compiler Xcode uses to build your project, try just running xcodebuild without scan-build.
You should see the full path to the compiler that Xcode is using, and use that as an argument to --use-cc. How does it work? Upon completion of the build, results are then presented to the user within a web browser. Will it work with any build system? Basic Usage Basic usage of scan-build is designed to be simple: Here is the general format for invoking scan-build: For example, one can pass -j4 to make get a parallel build over 4 cores: It is also possible to use scan-build to analyze specific files: For Windows Users Windows users must have Perl installed to use scan-build.
If getting unexpected "fatal error: Specifically, makefile commands with backslashed quotes may be heavily corrupted when passed for execution. Run make from the sh shell: Other Options As mentioned above, extra options can be passed to scan-build.
Subdirectories will be created as needed to represent separate "runs" of the analyzer. This option currently supports make and xcodebuild.
This is a convenience option; one can specify this behavior directly using build options. A second and third "-v" increases verbosity , and is useful for filing bug reports against the analyzer. A complete list of options can be obtained by running scan-build with no arguments. Output of scan-build The output of scan-build is a set of HTML files, each one which represents a separate bug report.
Recommended Usage Guidelines This section describes a few recommendations with running the analyzer. ALWAYS analyze a project in its "debug" configuration Most projects can be built in a "debug" mode that enables assertions.
Use verbose output when debugging scan-build scan-build takes a -v option to emit verbose output about what it's doing; two -v options emit more information. Analyzing iPhone Projects Conceptually Xcode projects for iPhone applications are nearly the same as their cousins for desktop applications. Using scan-build directly If you wish to use scan-build with your iPhone project, keep the following things in mind: Analyze your project in the Debug configuration, either by setting this as your configuration with Xcode or by passing -configuration Debug to xcodebuild.
Analyze your project using the Simulator as your base SDK. It is possible to analyze your code when targeting the device, but this is much easier to do when using Xcode's Build and Analyze feature. Viewing static analyzer results in a web browser.
Target directory for HTML report files. Add a "keep on going" option to the specified build command. Verbose output from scan-build and the analyzer.