scan-build: running the analyzer from the command line

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Richard Stallman founded the GNU project in to create a complete Unix-like operating system as free software, to promote freedom and cooperation among computer users and programmers. The mother site command line option for make static binary GCC is http: The current version is GCC 7. The GNU Toolchain includes:. GCC is portable and run in many operating platforms. GCC is also a cross-compilerfor producing executables on different platform.

It is the standard compiler for most Unix-like operating systems. Open a Terminal, and enter " gcc --version ". If gcc is not installed, the system will prompt you to install gcc. To differentiate these variations, you need to understand the followings:. The col utility is needed to strip the backspace.

For Cygwin, it is available in "Utils", "util-linux" package. Alternatively, you could look for an online man pages, e. The default output executable is called " a.

We use the -o option to specify the output file name. The above command compile the source file into object file and link with other object files and system libraries into executable in one step. You may separate compile and link in two steps as follows:. Suppose that your program has two source files: You could compile all of them in a single command:.

However, we usually compile each of the source files separately into object file, and link them together in the later stage. In this case, changes in one file does not require re-compilation of the other files.

Read " Java Native Interface " for example. For example, a " gcc -o hello. You can see the detailed compilation process by enabling -v verbose option. The value should be enclosed in double quotes if it contains spaces. A library is a collection of pre-compiled object files that command line option for make static binary be linked into your programs via the linker.

Examples are the system functions such as printf and sqrt. Because of the advantage of dynamic linking, GCC, by default, links to the shared library if it is available. When compiling the program, the compiler needs the header files to compile the source codes; the linker needs the libraries to resolve external references from other object files or libraries.

For each of the headers used in your source via include directivesthe compiler searches the so-called include-paths for these headers. Since the header's filename is known e.

The linker searches the so-called library-paths for libraries needed to link the program into an executable. In addition, you also have to specify the library name.

In Unixes, the library lib xxx. In Windows, provide the full name such as -lxxx. The linker needs to know both the directories as well as the library names. Hence, two options need to be specified. Try running the compilation in verbose mode -v to study the library-paths -L and libraries -l used in your system:. The settings are applicable to the selected project only. For all the GNU utilities, you can use " command --help " to list the help menu; or " man command " to display the command line option for make static binary pages.

The utility " file " can be used to display the type of object files and executable files. A 'T' in the second column indicates a function that is definedwhile a 'U' indicates a function which is undefined and should be resolved by the linker. The utility " ldd " examines an executable and displays a list of the shared libraries that it needs. The " make " utility automates the mundane aspects of building executable from source code.

You can issue " make --help " to list the command-line options; or " man make " to display the man pages. Let's begin with a simple example to build the Hello-world program hello.

Create the following file named "makefile" without any file extensionwhich contains rules to build the executable, and save in the same directory as the source file. Use "tab" to indent the command NOT spaces. Running make without argument starts the target " all " in the makefile. A makefile consists of a set of rules. A rule consists of 3 parts: The target and pre-requisites are separated by a colon: The command must be preceded by a tab NOT spaces. When make is asked to evaluate a rule, it begins by finding the files in the prerequisites.

If any of the prerequisites has an associated rule, make attempts to update those first. In the above example, the rule " all " has a pre-requisite " hello. The rule " hello. Again, it does not exist, so make looks for a rule to create it. It runs command line option for make static binary command " gcc -c hello. Finally, the rule " all " does nothing. More importantly, if the pre-requisite is not newer than than target, the command will not be run. In other words, the command will be run only if the target is out-dated compared with its pre-requisite.

For example, if we re-run the make command:. You can also specify the target to be made in the make command line option for make static binary. For example, the target " clean " removes the " hello. You can then run the make without target, which is the same as " make all ". A comment begins with a and lasts till the end of the line. The rules are usually organized in such as way the more general rules come first. The overall rule is often name " all ", which is the default command line option for make static binary for make.

A target that does not represent a file is called a phony target. For example, the " clean " in the above example, which is just a label for a command. If the command line option for make static binary is a file, it will be checked against its pre-requisite for out-of-date-ness. Phony target is always out-of-date and its command will be run.

The standard phony targets are: Single character variables do not need the parentheses. You can also use vpath lowercase to be more precise about the file type and its search directory. Make comes with a huge set of implicit pattern rules.

Command line option for make static binary can list all the rule via --print-data-base option. Make is actually quite complex, and can be considered as a programming language by itself!!

The GNU Toolchain includes: A build system including Autoconf, Autoheader, Automake and Libtool. GCC version 1 Initial version that support C.

GCC version 2 GCC version 3 GCC version 4 GCC version 5 GCC Version 6 GCC Version 7 Cygwin is a Unix-like environment and command-line command line option for make static binary for Microsoft Windows. Cygwin is huge and includes most of the Unix tools and utilities.

It also included the commonly-used Bash shell. To differentiate these variations, you need to understand the followings: If the target is native Windows, the code can be distributed and run under Windows.

However, if the target is Cygwin, to distribute, you need to distribute Cygwin runtime environment cygwin1. This is because Cygwin is a Unix emulator under Windows. The executable is " iwmingwgcc ". Run the executables and check the versions: You probably should install these two packages too.

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During a project build, as source files are compiled they are also analyzed in tandem by the static analyzer. It works by overriding the CC and CXX environment variables to hopefully change your build to use a "fake" compiler instead of the one that would normally build your project.

This fake compiler executes either clang or gcc depending on the platform to compile your code and then executes the static analyzer to analyze your code. This "poor man's interposition" works amazingly well in many cases and falls down in others. Please consult the information on this page on making the best use of scan-build , which includes getting it to work when the aforementioned hack fails to work.

The scan-build command can be used to analyze an entire project by essentially interposing on a project's build process. This means that any files that are not compiled will also not be analyzed. Basic usage of scan-build is designed to be simple: In the first case scan-build analyzes the code of a project built with make and in the second case scan-build analyzes a project built using xcodebuild. Here is the general format for invoking scan-build:. For example, one can pass -j4 to make get a parallel build over 4 cores:.

In almost all cases, scan-build makes no effort to interpret the options after the build command; it simply passes them through. In general, scan-build should support parallel builds, but not distributed builds.

To invoke scan-build from an arbitrary location, add the path to the folder containing scan-build. As mentioned above, extra options can be passed to scan-build. These options prefix the build command. The output of scan-build is a set of HTML files, each one which represents a separate bug report.

You can then just open index. Where the HTML files are generated is specified with a -o option to scan-build. If you want to view the reports immediately after the build completes, pass -V to scan-build. Most projects can be built in a "debug" mode that enables assertions.

Assertions are picked up by the static analyzer to prune infeasible paths, which in some cases can greatly reduce the number of false positives bogus error reports emitted by the tool. Another option is to use --force-analyze-debug-code flag of scan-build tool which would enable assertions automatically. Redirecting the output of scan-build to a text file make sure to redirect standard error is useful for filing bug reports against scan-build or the analyzer, as we can see the exact options and files passed to the analyzer.

For more comprehensible logs, don't perform a parallel build. If an analyzed project uses an autoconf generated configure script, you will probably need to run configure script through scan-build in order to analyze the project.

The reason configure also needs to be run through scan-build is because scan-build scans your source files by interposing on the compiler. This interposition is currently done by scan-build temporarily setting the environment variable CC to ccc-analyzer. The program ccc-analyzer acts like a fake compiler, forwarding its command line arguments over to the compiler to perform regular compilation and clang to perform static analysis. Running configure typically generates makefiles that have hardwired paths to the compiler, and by running configure through scan-build that path is set to ccc-analyzer.

Conceptually Xcode projects for iPhone applications are nearly the same as their cousins for desktop applications. The absolute easiest way to analyze iPhone projects is to use the Analyze feature in Xcode which is based on the Clang Static Analyzer.

There a user can analyze their project right from a menu without most of the setup described later. Instructions are available on this website on how to use open source builds of the analyzer as a replacement for the one bundled with Xcode. If you wish to use scan-build with your iPhone project, keep the following things in mind:.

Note that you can most of this without actually modifying your project. For example, if your application targets iPhoneOS 2. Recall that scan-build analyzes your project by using a compiler to compile the project and clang to analyze your project. The script uses simple heuristics to determine which compiler should be used it defaults to clang on Darwin and gcc on other platforms. When analyzing iPhone projects, scan-build may pick the wrong compiler than the one Xcode would use to build your project.

For example, this could be because multiple versions of a compiler may be installed on your system, especially if you are developing for the iPhone.

Otherwise, you may see strange build errors that only happen when you run scan-build. Note that although you are chiefly interested in analyzing your project, keep in mind that running the analyzer is intimately tied to the build, and not being able to compile your code means it won't get fully analyzed if at all. If you aren't certain which compiler Xcode uses to build your project, try just running xcodebuild without scan-build.

You should see the full path to the compiler that Xcode is using, and use that as an argument to --use-cc. How does it work? Upon completion of the build, results are then presented to the user within a web browser. Will it work with any build system? Basic Usage Basic usage of scan-build is designed to be simple: Here is the general format for invoking scan-build: For example, one can pass -j4 to make get a parallel build over 4 cores: It is also possible to use scan-build to analyze specific files: For Windows Users Windows users must have Perl installed to use scan-build.

If getting unexpected "fatal error: Specifically, makefile commands with backslashed quotes may be heavily corrupted when passed for execution. Run make from the sh shell: Other Options As mentioned above, extra options can be passed to scan-build.

Subdirectories will be created as needed to represent separate "runs" of the analyzer. This option currently supports make and xcodebuild.

This is a convenience option; one can specify this behavior directly using build options. A second and third "-v" increases verbosity , and is useful for filing bug reports against the analyzer. A complete list of options can be obtained by running scan-build with no arguments. Output of scan-build The output of scan-build is a set of HTML files, each one which represents a separate bug report.

Recommended Usage Guidelines This section describes a few recommendations with running the analyzer. ALWAYS analyze a project in its "debug" configuration Most projects can be built in a "debug" mode that enables assertions.

Use verbose output when debugging scan-build scan-build takes a -v option to emit verbose output about what it's doing; two -v options emit more information. Analyzing iPhone Projects Conceptually Xcode projects for iPhone applications are nearly the same as their cousins for desktop applications. Using scan-build directly If you wish to use scan-build with your iPhone project, keep the following things in mind: Analyze your project in the Debug configuration, either by setting this as your configuration with Xcode or by passing -configuration Debug to xcodebuild.

Analyze your project using the Simulator as your base SDK. It is possible to analyze your code when targeting the device, but this is much easier to do when using Xcode's Build and Analyze feature. Viewing static analyzer results in a web browser.

Target directory for HTML report files. Add a "keep on going" option to the specified build command. Verbose output from scan-build and the analyzer.