Margin Trading

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If cash trading account definition reading this, you may be planning to open a brokerage account. You may wish to invest for your retirement or a child's education, or simply to try to grow some cash you have set aside. This publication explains what to expect if you do decide to open a brokerage account, including what information you will be asked to provide, what decisions you will be asked to make, what questions you should ask your broker and what your rights are as a customer of a brokerage firm.

When you decide to open an account, there will be paperwork to complete. This will include a new account applicationwhich brokerage firms may also call a new account form, account opening form or something similar. This application form cash trading account definition require you to provide some information about yourself, as well as ask you to make certain decisions about your account. As explained in more detail below, brokers use this information for several purposes, including learning about you and your financial needs and meeting certain regulatory obligations.

While it may take a little time to fill out the application, it is important to answer the questions on the application accurately. So, be sure to read the application and the accompanying agreements and other documents the brokerage firm gives you carefully—and ask questions about anything you don't understand.

In a new account application, along with other information, you'll likely be asked to provide your:. Be accurate when you are providing the information requested on these forms.

Your broker will use the information to understand your financial needs and to meet certain regulatory obligations. In cash trading account definition, you are certifying that the information you've provided is accurate when you sign the new account application. The new account form will also cash trading account definition you to make some important decisions about your account, including how you will pay for your transactions, how any uninvested cash will be managed and who will have control over and access to your account.

While margin loan agreements are typically used to allow cash trading account definition to buy securities on margin, some firms allow cash trading account definition customers to take out loans for other purposes.

In connection cash trading account definition these loans, a firm might ask the customer to sign a margin agreement. Before you borrow money from your brokerage firm-for any reason-be sure you fully understand the terms, costs and consequences.

The new account application may come with other cash trading account definition as a "Customer Agreement," cash trading account definition and Conditions" or the like. Make sure to ask for copies if you do not receive them and download or print out copies of these for your records if you conduct business with your brokerage firm online.

Be sure to take time to review carefully all the information in these documents, whether you are opening your account in person at your broker's office or filling cash trading account definition your forms at home or online. And do not sign them unless you thoroughly understand and agree cash trading account definition the terms and conditions they impose on you.

If you haven't already done so, make sure cash trading account definition check out the background of your broker and brokerage firm before you open an account with them.

Although a history free from registration or licensing problems, disciplinary actions or bankruptcies is no guarantee of the same in the future, checking out your broker and firm in advance can help you avoid problems.

Also make sure that the phone numbers and addresses that your broker and brokerage firm give you as their contact information are consistent with those listed in Brokercheck. Fraudulent entities and individuals have been known to cash trading account definition the identities of legitimate brokers and brokerage firms so that they can get at your personal information! Asking questions will help you to invest wisely and avoid problems. No matter what your level of investing experience, don't be shy or intimidated—it's your money.

Here's a list to get you started. The brokerage firm that you open an account with may not be the one that sends your account statements. You may open an account with an introducing firmwhich makes recommendations, takes and executes your orders and has an arrangement with a clearing and carrying firmcash trading account definition is the one to finalize "settle" or "clear" your trades and hold your funds or cash trading account definition.

There are also firms that take and execute orders and settle trades. If you work with an introducing firm, you may receive statements from the clearing firm. Find out what type of firm you open an account with and who will send you the account statements. You will receive an account statement at least once every calendar quarter.

Whether the securities are registered in your name or in the name of the brokerage firm can affect how soon you receive your dividends and interest, the ease with which you can sell your securities and the types of communications you receive directly from the issuer of the securities, among other things. After you open your account, you should monitor its activity regularly. Make sure that you review all of your account statements and trade confirmations cash trading account definition any errors or any transactions that you did not authorize.

If you see any evidence of unauthorized trading or errors, notify your broker, broker's supervisor or brokerage firm's compliance department immediately to further protect your rights. Cash trading account definition sure to take notes of any conversations you have with your firm concerning such disputes, to send in your complaints in writing as well and to keep copies of these notes and all cash trading account definition related to such disputes for your records.

Ask yourself whether your investments are meeting your expectations and goals and whether your goals have changed.

Do your investments still appear to be right for you, and what criteria will you use to decide when to sell? Information You'll Be Asked to Provide When you decide to open an account, there will be paperwork to complete. In a new account application, along with other information, you'll likely be asked to cash trading account definition your: Social Security or other tax identification number: Like banks, credit unions and other financial institutions, brokerage firms must report to the Internal Revenue Service the income you earn on cash trading account definition investments.

Driver's license or passport information, or information from other government-issued identification: Employment status, financial information—such as your annual income and net worth—and investment objectives: Collecting this cash trading account definition helps your broker to fulfill regulatory obligations.

In addition, the information can help your broker determine suitable investment recommendations for you. Note that the terms used to describe investment objectives often vary across brokerage firms and new account applications. You might hear terms such as "income," "growth," "conservative," "moderate," "aggressive" and "speculative. Make sure that you describe your financial goals, how much risk you are willing to take with your investments and when you expect cash trading account definition need access to the funds in your account as comprehensively as possible.

Effective February 5,new account forms may include a section asking you to provide information for a trusted contact person. Your broker might ask for this information in a conversation or via email as well. You should expect to be asked to provide the name, address and telephone number s for a trusted contact person that your brokerage firm may contact about your account.

While you are not required to provide this information to open an account, it may be a good idea to do so. By choosing to provide this information, you are authorizing the firm to contact such person and disclose information about your account in certain circumstances, including to address possible financial exploitation, and to cash trading account definition the specifics of your current contact information, health status, or the identity of any legal guardian, executor, trustee or holder of a power of attorney.

You also will receive a written disclosure from the firm that lays out these details. Cash trading account definition You'll Be Asked to Make The cash trading account definition account form will also ask you to make some important decisions about your account, including how you will pay for your transactions, how any uninvested cash will be managed and who will have control over and access to your account. Do you want a cash account or margin loan account?

Most brokerage firms offer at least two types of accounts—a cash account and a margin loan account customarily known as a "margin account". In a cash account, you must pay for your securities in full at the time of purchase. In a margin loan account, although you must eventually pay for your securities in full, your broker can lend you funds at the time of purchase, with the securities in your portfolio serving as cash trading account definition for the loan.

This is called buying securities "on margin. There are risks cash trading account definition arise from purchasing securities on margin that do not come with most other types of loans. For example if the value of your securities declines significantly, you may be subject to a "margin call. The brokerage firm decides which of your securities to sell.

Even if the firm gives you notice that you have a certain number of days to cover the shortfall, the firm still may sell your securities before that timeframe expires. Also, the firm may change, at any time, the threshold at which customers can be subject to a margin call. Be sure to read carefully your new account application and any other documents that your broker gives you about margin loan accounts.

Be sure that you understand how these accounts work before you sign up for one. With some firms, you sign up for a margin loan account by default unless you indicate otherwise on the application. If you have opened a margin account, but you pay for your securities in full at the time of purchase, you incur no more risks than you would in a cash account. No "Margin" for Error. How do you want to manage your uninvested cash? Sometimes there is cash in your account that hasn't been invested.

For example, you may have just deposited money cash trading account definition your account without giving instructions on how to invest it, or you may have received cash dividends or interest. Your brokerage firm typically will automatically place—or "sweep"—that cash into a cash management program customarily known as a "cash sweep" program. On your new account application, your brokerage firm may ask you to select a cash management program.

Cash management programs offer different benefits and risks, including different interest rates and insurance coverage. Be sure you understand the different features of the cash management programs that your firm offers so that you can make an informed decision if you are asked to choose one. Who will make the final decisions for your account? You will have final cash trading account definition on investment decisions in your account unless you give "discretionary authority" in writing to another person, such as your financial professional.

With cash trading account definition authority, this person may invest your money without consulting you about the price, amount or type of security or the timing of the trades that are placed for your account.

Some firms allow you to indicate who has discretionary authority cash trading account definition the account directly on the cash trading account definition account application, while others require separate documentation. There may be other types of authority that you may provide over your account, including a power of attorney and authorized trading privileges. Make sure you think through the risks involved in allowing someone else to make decisions about your money.

Other Account Opening Documents The new account application may come with other documents-such as a "Customer Agreement," "Terms and Conditions" or the like. Check Out Your Broker If you haven't already done so, make sure you check out the background of your broker and brokerage firm before you open an account with them.

Questions to Ask Asking questions will help you to invest wisely and avoid problems. Is this a margin account or a cash account? Can you explain the differences between the two? What choices do I have regarding cash sweep programs? What are the different features, including interest rates and federal insurance coverage?

If the firm offers both bank deposits and money market funds, what are the advantages and disadvantages of selecting one over the other? Who will control decision-making in my account? How often will I get account statements?

Who will provide the statements and will they be online or in paper? Will my securities be registered in my name, or in the name of the firm?

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Nostro and vostro from Italian , nostro and vostro ; English, 'ours' and 'yours' are accounting terms used to distinguish an account held for another entity from an account another entity holds. The entities in question are almost always, but need not be, banks. The terms nostro and vostro are used, mainly by banks, when one bank keeps money at another bank.

Both banks need to keep records of how much money is being kept by one bank on behalf of the other. In order to distinguish between the two sets of records of the same balance and set of transactions, banks refer to the accounts as nostro and vostro. Speaking from the point of view of the bank whose money is being held at another bank: A vostro account is the same as any other bank account.

It is a record of money held by a bank or owed to a bank by a third party an individual, company or bank. The nostro account is a way of the bank whose money it is, keeping track of how much is being held by the other bank.

For these accounts, the domestic bank is acting like a custodian or managing the accounts of a foreign counterpart. These accounts are utilised for facilitating the settlements of forex and foreign trades. A client bank elects to open an account with another facilitator bank. The facilitator bank will assist the client bank in making payments in its country's currency, usually using its own access to primary clearing arrangements generally with the central bank in the country where the currency is considered a local currency.

In some cases, the facilitator bank may not be a primary clearing member but they will have the ability to make payments in local currency, possibly through another bank in the same country. A bank counts a nostro account with a debit balance as a cash asset in its balance sheet. Conversely, a vostro account with a credit balance i. Thus in many banks a credit entry on an account "CR" is regarded as negative movement, and a debit "DR" is positive - the reverse of usual commercial accounting conventions.

With the advent of computerised accounting, nostros and vostros just need to have opposite signs within any one bank's accounting system; that is, if a nostro in credit has a positive sign, then a vostro in credit must have a negative sign. This allows for a reconciliation by summing all accounts to zero a trial balance — the basic premise of double-entry bookkeeping. Nostro accounts are mostly commonly used for currency settlement, where a bank or other financial institution needs to hold balances in a currency other than its home accounting unit.

First National Bank of A does some transactions loans, foreign exchange, etc. FNBA maintains its own records of that account, for reconciliation; this is its nostro account. CMB's record of the same account is the vostro account. FNBA will make the following entries in its own accounting system:. If C does not have an account directly with FNBA's corresponding bank, the funds may be transferred within the banking system of country B by cheque or some form of electronic funds transfer EFT.

In this case CMB will make entries on several other accounts, such as a teller's receiving account, or a clearing account with the third bank holding C's account. There is also the notion of a loro account "theirs" , which is a record of an account held by a second bank on behalf of a third party; that is, my record of their account with you. In practice this is rarely used, the main exception being complex syndicated financing.

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