## Digital audio

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In digital circuits binary code digital signals wikipedia, a logic level is one of a finite number of states that a digital signal can inhabit. Logic levels are usually represented by the voltage difference between the signal and groundalthough other binary code digital signals wikipedia exist.

The range of voltage levels that represents each state depends on the logic family being used. In binary logic the two levels are logical high and logical lowwhich generally correspond to binary numbers 1 and 0 respectively.

Signals with one of these two levels can be used in boolean algebra for digital circuit design or analysis. The use of either the higher or the lower voltage level to represent either logic state is arbitrary. The two options are active high and active low. Active-high and active-low states can be mixed at will: Occasionally a logic design is simplified by inverting the choice of active level see De Morgan's theorem.

The name of an active-low signal is historically written with a bar above it to distinguish it from an active-high signal.

For example, the name Qread "Q bar" or "Q not", represents an active-low signal. The conventions commonly used are:. Many control signals in electronics are active-low signals  usually reset lines, chip-select lines and so on. Logic families such as TTL can sink more current than they can source, so fanout and noise immunity increase.

RS signaling, as used on some serial binary code digital signals wikipediauses active-low signals. Some signals have a meaning in both states and notation may indicate binary code digital signals wikipedia. The two logical states are usually represented by two different voltages, but two different binary code digital signals wikipedia are used in some logic families.

High and low thresholds are specified for each logic family. When below the low threshold, the signal is "low. It is usual to allow some tolerance in the voltage levels used; for example, 0 to 2 volts might represent logic 0, and 3 to 5 volts logic 1. A voltage of 2 to 3 volts would be invalid, and occur only in a fault condition or during a logic level transition. However, few logic circuits can detect such a condition and most devices will interpret the signal simply as high or low in an undefined or device-specific manner.

Some logic devices incorporate Schmitt trigger inputs whose behavior is much better defined in the threshold region, and have increased resilience to small variations in the input voltage.

The problem of the circuit designer is to avoid circumstances that produce intermediate levels, so that the circuit behaves predictably. Nearly all digital circuits use a consistent logic level for all internal signals. That level, however, varies from one system to another. Interconnecting any two logic families often required special techniques such as additional pull-up resistors or purpose-built interface circuits known as level shifters.

A level shifter connects one digital circuit that uses one logic level to another digital circuit that uses another logic level. Often two level shifters are used, one at each system: A line driver converts from internal logic levels to standard interface line levels; a line receiver converts from interface levels to internal voltage levels.

Generally a TTL output does not rise high enough to be reliably recognized as a logic 1 by a CMOS binary code digital signals wikipedia, especially if it binary code digital signals wikipedia only connected to a high-input-impedance CMOS input binary code digital signals wikipedia does not source significant current.

These devices only work with a 5V power supply. Best online stock trading broker uk three-state logican output device can also be high impedance. This is not a logic level, but means that the output is not controlling the state of the connected circuit.

ECL [ citation needed ].

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A signal as referred to in communication systems , signal processing , and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".

In nature, signals can take the form of any action by one organism able to be perceived by other organisms, ranging from the release of chemicals by plants to alert nearby plants of the same type of a predator, to sounds or motions made by animals to alert other animals of the presence of danger or of food. Signaling occurs in organisms all the way down to the cellular level, with cell signaling.

Signaling theory , in evolutionary biology, proposes that a substantial driver for evolution is the ability for animals to communicate with each other by developing ways of signaling. In human engineering, signals are typically provided by a sensor , and often the original form of a signal is converted to another form of energy using a transducer. For example, a microphone converts an acoustic signal to a voltage waveform, and a speaker does the reverse.

The formal study of the information content of signals is the field of information theory. The information in a signal is usually accompanied by noise. The term noise usually means an undesirable random disturbance, but is often extended to include unwanted signals conflicting with the desired signal such as crosstalk.

The prevention of noise is covered in part under the heading of signal integrity. The separation of desired signals from a background is the field of signal recovery ,  one branch of which is estimation theory , a probabilistic approach to suppressing random disturbances.

Engineering disciplines such as electrical engineering have led the way in the design, study, and implementation of systems involving transmission , storage , and manipulation of information. In the latter half of the 20th century, electrical engineering itself separated into several disciplines, specialising in the design and analysis of systems that manipulate physical signals; electronic engineering and computer engineering as examples; while design engineering developed to deal with functional design of man—machine interfaces.

Definitions specific to sub-fields are common. For example, in information theory , a signal is a codified message, that is, the sequence of states in a communication channel that encodes a message. In the context of signal processing , arbitrary binary data streams are not considered as signals, but only analog and digital signals that are representations of analog physical quantities.

In a communication system , a transmitter encodes a message to a signal, which is carried to a receiver by the communications channel. For example, the words " Mary had a little lamb " might be the message spoken into a telephone. The telephone transmitter converts the sounds into an electrical voltage signal. The signal is transmitted to the receiving telephone by wires; at the receiver it is reconverted into sounds. In telephone networks, signaling , for example common-channel signaling , refers to phone number and other digital control information rather than the actual voice signal.

Signals can be categorized in various ways. The most common distinction is between discrete and continuous spaces that the functions are defined over, for example discrete and continuous time domains.

Discrete-time signals are often referred to as time series in other fields. Continuous-time signals are often referred to as continuous signals even when the signal functions are not continuous ; an example is a square-wave signal. A second important distinction is between discrete-valued and continuous-valued.

Particularly in digital signal processing a digital signal is sometimes defined as a sequence of discrete values, that may or may not be derived from an underlying continuous-valued physical process. In other contexts, digital signals are defined as the continuous-time waveform signals in a digital system, representing a bit-stream. In the first case, a signal that is generated by means of a digital modulation method is considered as converted to an analog signal, while it is considered as a digital signal in the second case.

Another important property of a signal actually, of a statistically defined class of signals is its entropy or information content. Two main types of signals encountered in practice are analog and digital. The figure shows a digital signal that results from approximating an analog signal by its values at particular time instants. Digital signals are quantized , while analog signals are continuous. An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature variable of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.

For example, in an analog audio signal , the instantaneous voltage of the signal varies continuously with the pressure of the sound waves. It differs from a digital signal , in which the continuous quantity is a representation of a sequence of discrete values which can only take on one of a finite number of values.

An analog signal uses some property of the medium to convey the signal's information. For example, an aneroid barometer uses rotary position as the signal to convey pressure information. In an electrical signal, the voltage , current , or frequency of the signal may be varied to represent the information.

Any information may be conveyed by an analog signal; often such a signal is a measured response to changes in physical phenomena, such as sound , light , temperature , position, or pressure. The physical variable is converted to an analog signal by a transducer. For example, in sound recording, fluctuations in air pressure that is to say, sound strike the diaphragm of a microphone which induces corresponding fluctuations in the current produced by a coil in an electromagnetic microphone, or the voltage produced by a condenser microphone.

The voltage or the current is said to be an "analog" of the sound. A digital signal is a signal that is constructed from a discrete set of waveforms of a physical quantity so as to represent a sequence of discrete values.

Other types of digital signals can represent three-valued logic or higher valued logics. Alternatively, a digital signal may be considered to be the sequence of codes represented by such a physical quantity. Digital signals are present in all digital electronics , notably computing equipment and data transmission. With digital signals, system noise, provided it is not too great, will not affect system operation whereas noise always degrades the operation of analog signals to some degree.

The resulting stream of numbers is stored as digital data on a discrete-time and quantized-amplitude signal. Computers and other digital devices are restricted to discrete time. One of the fundamental distinctions between different types of signals is between continuous and discrete time. In the mathematical abstraction, the domain of a continuous-time CT signal is the set of real numbers or some interval thereof , whereas the domain of a discrete-time DT signal is the set of integers or some interval.

What these integers represent depends on the nature of the signal; most often it is time. If for a signal, the quantities are defined only on a discrete set of times, we call it a discrete-time signal.

A simple source for a discrete time signal is the sampling of a continuous signal, approximating the signal by a sequence of its values at particular time instants. A discrete-time real or complex signal can be seen as a function from a subset of the set of integers the index labeling time instants to the set of real or complex numbers the function values at those instants. A continuous-time real or complex signal is any real-valued or complex-valued function which is defined at every time t in an interval, most commonly an infinite interval.

If a signal is to be represented as a sequence of numbers, it is impossible to maintain exact precision - each number in the sequence must have a finite number of digits. As a result, the values of such a signal belong to a finite set ; in other words, it is quantized. Quantization is the process of converting a continuous analog audio signal to a digital signal with discrete numerical values.

Signals in nature can be converted to electronic signals by various sensors. Other examples of signals are the output of a thermocouple , which conveys temperature information, and the output of a pH meter which conveys acidity information. A typical role for signals is in signal processing.

A common example is signal transmission between different locations. The embodiment of a signal in electrical form is made by a transducer that converts the signal from its original form to a waveform expressed as a current I or a voltage V , or an electromagnetic waveform , for example, an optical signal or radio transmission. Once expressed as an electronic signal, the signal is available for further processing by electrical devices such as electronic amplifiers and electronic filters , and can be transmitted to a remote location by electronic transmitters and received using electronic receivers.

In Electrical engineering programs, a class and field of study known as "signals and systems" S and S is often seen as the "cut class" for EE careers, and is dreaded by some students as such. Depending on the school, undergraduate EE students generally take the class as juniors or seniors, normally depending on the number and level of previous linear algebra and differential equation classes they have taken.

The field studies input and output signals, and the mathematical representations between them known as systems, in four domains: Time, Frequency, s and z. Since signals and systems are both studied in these four domains, there are 8 major divisions of study. As an example, when working with continuous time signals t , one might transform from the time domain to a frequency or s domain; or from discrete time n to frequency or z domains.

Systems also can be transformed between these domains like signals, with continuous to s and discrete to z. Although S and S falls under and includes all the topics covered in this article, as well as Analog signal processing and Digital signal processing , it actually is a subset of the field of Mathematical modeling.

The field goes back to RF over a century ago, when it was all analog, and generally continuous. Today, software has taken the place of much of the analog circuitry design and analysis, and even continuous signals are now generally processed digitally. In past EE curricula S and S, as it is often called, involved circuit analysis and design via mathematical modeling and some numerical methods, and was updated several decades ago with Dynamical systems tools including differential equations, and recently, Lagrangians.

The difficulty of the field at that time included the fact that not only mathematical modeling, circuits, signals and complex systems were being modeled, but physics as well, and a deep knowledge of electrical and now electronic topics also was involved and required. Students are expected to understand the tools as well as the mathematics, physics, circuit analysis, and transformations between the 8 domains. Because mechanical engineering topics like friction, dampening etc.

Dynamical systems that involve noise, filtering and other random or chaotic attractors and repellors have now placed stochastic sciences and statistics between the more deterministic discrete and continuous functions in the field. Deterministic as used here means signals that are completely determined as functions of time. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Signal disambiguation. Archived from the original on For example, see Priyabrata Sinha Speech processing in embedded systems.

To put it very generally, a signal is any time-varying physical quantity. Signal Recovery from Noise in Electronic Instrumentation 2nd ed. Dueck Archived at the Wayback Machine.: The Art of Electronics. A digital signal is a special form of discrete-time signal which is discrete in both time and amplitude, obtained by permitting each value sample of a discrete-time signal to acquire a finite set of values quantization , assigning it a numerical symbol according to a code A digital signal is a sequence or list of numbers drawn from a finite set.

Advances in Gyroscope Technologies. Retrieved from " https: Engineering concepts Digital signal processing Signal processing Telecommunication theory.

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